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Abatis: Rows of trees felled in the direction of the enemy with the smaller branches removed, the remainder sharpened to a point to create a defensive obstacle against advancing troops.
Advanced Works: Fortifications located beyond the glacis, but still within musket or rifle range of the main works.
Accouterments: Refers to the basic equipment of the infantry soldier; such as the cartridge box, belts, bayonet scabbard, haversack, knapsack, canteen, etc. When a soldier is under arms, he is said to be armed and accoutered.
Anchoring Gad: A device consisting of a three to four foot long "rope," made from twig fibers, and attached to a gad and an anchoring picket. This was used to secure the fascine to the parapet wall.
Anchoring Picket: A stake driven into the parapet as it was built to tightly hold the ropes or anchoring gads, which held fascines, gabions, and hurdles in place as revetments.
Approaches: The lines of entrenchments or ditches by which besiegers approach a fortified position. The principal trenches are called the first, second, and third parallels.
Armory: A storehouse where arms were stored and repaired. The individual who made repairs to the weapons was called an armorer.
Army: The body of troops of various corps (infantry, cavalry, artillery, and engineers) organized and commanded by a general.
Arsenal: A facility where arms were made, repaired, and stored, along with other types of military equipage.
Artillery: This term includes all kinds of military cannon, mortars, howitzers, etc., and all munitions and implements required for their operation.
Attack: Any type of movement upon the enemy. In siege warfare the term attack implies the works constructed by the besiegers. When an assault was partially made, with the intent of deceiving the enemy and diverting attention, it was called a false attack or a feint.